Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Understanding Different Learning Styles in the Workplace Thanks to Ron Gross for sharing this piece from his book Peak Learning: How to Create Your Own Lifelong Education Program for Personal Enlightenment and Professional Success. In the world of work, there is widening recognition of the need to capitalize on different learning styles within organizations. According to Dudley Lynch, in Your High Performance Business Brain, we can use this powerful new way of understanding people to design better organizations, ... do a more effective and productive job of hiring and placing people, and to frame our management messages so that they can penetrate the natural filters of the mind. That means you should be able to measure how well your learning style fits the tasks that compose your present job. You should also be able to recognize the styles of others, which will make for better communications. Understanding Your Style In a workshop, we illustrate this by forming a hemispheric circle. All the participants seat themselves in a semicircle so that each persons position reflects his or her degree of preference for either the stringer or the grouper style of learning. Those on the left side of the semicircle prefer to learn in a step-by-step, analytical, systematic way. Those on the right prefer a holistic, top-down, big-picture approach. Then, we talk about how these two kinds of people can best explain things to each other or convey new information. Hold on, now, one of the left-side folks will say. Id really prefer it if you could start out by giving me some basic examples of what youre talking about. You seem to be all over the map instead of starting with first things first. But the next minute someone from the right side will complain, Hey, I cant see the forest for all those trees youre throwing at me. Could we wrench ourselves up out of the details and get an overview of the subject? Whats the point? Where are we headed? Often partnerships are profitably forged out of two individuals who complement each others styles. In my workshops, we often see two people who work closely together take seats on opposite ends of the hemispheric circle. In one case, a couple in the fashion business found themselves in those places. It turned out that one of them was the idea person and the other, the financial wizard. Together they made a dynamic duo indeed. Teamwork Creating teams to work together or to solve problems is an important area in which an awareness of styles can assure greater success. Some highly technical problems call for team members who all share the same way of processing information, seeking new facts, interpreting evidence, and coming to conclusions. A narrow fact-finding or problem-solving assignment, such as determining how to expedite the passage of orders through the billing department, might be such a situation. In other situations, however, your success may depend on having the right mix of styles. You may need one or two people who take the top-down, broad view together with others who like to work systematically and logically. Creating a plan for the next years activities would be a task that could benefit from this mix of approaches. Recognizing Relationships With Superiors Another area in which styles of learning and thinking can crucially affect the success of individuals or organizations is boss-employee relations. This typical situation occurs every day in business and industry: a supervisor will complain that a new worker cant seem to learn a routine task. When the suggestion is made that the newcomer might learn it if shown it move by move, the supervisor - clearly a grouper rather than a stringer - expresses dismay, exclaiming, I never give instructions that way. It would be insulting and patronizing - anyone can pick it up if they really want to. Such conflict based on differences in style can extend right up to the executive suite. In their book, Type Talk, management consultants Otto Kroeger and Janet Thuesen tell how they helped straighten out troubled organizations by analyzing the disparities among the styles of the managers and executives involved. They even suggest developing a version of the organization chart in which each of the key individuals is identified not by his or her title, but by his or her learning style! Source Gross, Ronald. Peak Learning: How to Create Your Own Lifelong Education Program for Personal Enlightenment and Professional Success. Revised, Subsequent edition, TarcherPerigee, April 5, 1999.
Monday, October 21, 2019
Famous Medieval and Renaissance Couples Throughout history, men and women have joined together in partnerships both romantic and practical. Kings and their queens, writers and their muses, warriors and their lady-loves have at times had an impact on their world and on future events. The same could be said for some fictional couples, whose often-tragic romances have served to inspire both literature and true-life romantic adventures. These passionate, political, and poetic couples from the Medieval and Renaissance ages will go down in history. Abelard and Heloise Real life scholars of 12th-century Paris, Peter Abelard and his student, Heloise, had a torrid affair. Their story can be read in A Medieval Love Story. Arthur and Guinevere The legendary King Arthur and his queen are at the center of a huge corpus of medieval and post-medieval literature. In most stories, Guinevere had a real affection for her older husband, but her heart belonged to Lancelot. Boccaccio and Fiammetta Giovanni Boccaccio was an important 14th-century author. His muse was the lovely Fiammetta, whose true identity is undetermined but who appeared in some of his early works. Charles Brandon and Mary Tudor Henry VIII arranged for his sister Mary to wed King Louis XII of France, but she already loved Charles, the 1st Duke of Suffolk. She agreed to wed the much older Louis on condition that she be allowed to choose her next husband herself. When Louis died shortly after the marriage, Mary secretly wed Suffolk before Henry could embroil her in another political marriage. Henry was furious, but he forgave them after Suffolk paid a hefty fine. El Cid and Ximena Rodrigo DÃ az de Vivar was a notable military leader and the national hero of Spain. He acquired the title el Cid (sir or lord) during his lifetime. He really did marry Ximena (or Jimena), the kings niece, but the exact nature of their relationship is obscured in the mists of time and epic. Clovis and Clotilda Clovis was the founder of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings. His pious wife Clotilda convinced him to convert to Catholicism, which would prove significant in the future development of France. Dante and Beatrice Dante Alighieri is often considered the finest poet of the Middle Ages. His devotion in his poetry to Beatrice made her one of the most celebrated figures in western literature. Still, he never acted on his love, and may never even have told her personally how he felt. Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville HandsomeÃ Edward was attractive and popular with the ladies, and he surprised quite a few people when he married the widowed mother of two boys. Edwards bestowal of court favors on Elizabeths relatives disrupted his court. Erec and Enide The poem Erec et EnideÃ is the earliest extant Arthurian romance by 12th-century poet ChrÃ ©tien de Troyes. In it, Erec wins a tournament to defend the assertion that his lady is the most beautiful. Later, the two go on a quest to prove to each other their noble qualities. Etienne de Castel and Christine de Pizan The time Christine had with her husband was a mere ten years. His death left her in financial straits, and she turned to writing to support herself. Her works included love ballads dedicated to the late Etienne. Ferdinand and Isabella The Catholic Monarchs of Spain united Castile and Aragon when they married. Together, they overcame civil war, completed the Reconquista by defeating the last Moorish holdout of Granada, and sponsored the voyages of Columbus. They also expelled the Jews and began the Spanish Inquisition. Gareth and Lynette In the Arthurian tale of Gareth and Lynette, first told by Malory, Gareth proves himself to be chivalrous, even though Lynette heaps scorn upon him. Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell The story of the loathly lady is told in many versions. The most famous involves Gawain, one of Arthurs greatest knights, whom the ugly Dame Ragnell chooses for her husband, and is told in The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnelle. Geoffrey and Philippa Chaucer He is considered the quintessential medieval English poet. She was his devoted wife for more than twenty years. While they were wedÃ Geoffrey ChaucerÃ led a busy, successful life in service to the king. After her death, he endured a solitary existence and wrote his most notable works, includingÃ Troilus and CriseydeÃ andÃ TheÃ Canterbury Tales. HenryÃ PlantagenetÃ and Eleanor of Aquitaine At the age of 30, the bold, beautifulÃ Eleanor of AquitaineÃ was divorced from her husband, the meek and mild King Louis VII of France, and married the brash young 18-year-oldÃ HenryÃ Plantagenet,Ã futureÃ king of England. The two would have a tempestuous marriage, but Eleanor bore Henry eight children- two of whom became kings. Henry Tudor and Elizabeth of York After his defeat of Richard III,Ã Henry TudorÃ became king, and he sealed the deal by marrying the daughter of an undisputed king of England (Edward IV). But was Elizabeth really happy married to the Lancastrian enemy of her Yorkist family? Well, she gave him seven children, including the future king Henry VIII. Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn After decades of marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which produced a daughter but no sons,Ã Henry VIIIÃ threw tradition to the wind in pursuit of the captivating Anne Boleyn. His actions would ultimately result in a split with the Catholic Church. Sadly, Anne also failed to give Henry an heir, and when he tired of her, she lost her head. John of England and Isabella WhenÃ JohnÃ marriedÃ Isabella of AngoulÃ ªme, it caused some problems, not least because she was engaged to someone else. John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford The third son ofÃ Edward III,Ã JohnÃ married and outlived two women who brought him titles and land, but his heart belonged to Katherine Swynford. Though their relationship was at times rocky, Katherine bore John four children out of wedlock. WhenÃ John, at last, married Katherine, the children were legitimized, but they and their descendants were officially barred from the throne. This would not stopÃ Henry VII, a descendant of John and Katherine, from becoming king a century later. Justinian and Theodora Considered by some scholars to be the greatest emperor of medieval Byzantium,Ã JustinianÃ was a great man with an even greater woman behind him. WithÃ Theodoras support, he reclaimed significant portions of the western empire, reformed Roman law and rebuilt Constantinople. After her death, he achieved little. Lancelot and Guinevere When political necessity joins a young woman to a king, should she ignore the dictates of her heart?Ã GuinevereÃ didnt, and her passionate affair withÃ Arthurs greatest knightÃ would lead to the downfall of Camelot. Louis IX and Margaret LouisÃ was a saint. But he was also a mamas boy. He was only 12 when his father died, and his mother Blanche served as regent for him. She also chose his wife. Yet Louis was devoted to his bride Margaret, and together they had 11 children, while Blanche grew jealous of her daughter-in-law and died with her nose out of joint. Merlin and Nimue Arthurs most trusted advisor may have been a wizard, butÃ MerlinÃ was also a man, susceptible to the charms of women. Nimue (or sometimes Vivien,Ã Nineve,Ã or Niniane) was so charming she was able toÃ ensorcellÃ Merlin and trap him in a cave (or sometimes tree), where he was unable to help Arthur in his time of darkest trouble. Petrarch and Laura Like Dante and Boccaccio,Ã Francesco Petrarca, theÃ founder ofÃ Renaissance Humanism,Ã had his muse: the lovely Laura. The poems he dedicated to her inspired poets of succeeding generations, most notably Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser. Philip of Spain and Bloody Mary Poor Mary, the Catholic queen of England, loved her husband madly. ButÃ PhilipÃ couldnt stand the sight of her. To make matters worse, the largely Protestant population of her country simply would not convert back to Catholicism, and they resented the presence of a Catholic foreigner in Marys household. Heartsick and stressed, Mary had several hysterical pregnancies and died at the age of 42. Raphael Sanzio and Margherita Luti The charming, suave, amiableÃ RaphaelÃ was so popular he became known as the prince of painters. He was very publicly engaged to Maria Bibbiena, the niece of a powerful cardinal, but scholars believe he may haveÃ secretly marriedÃ Margherita Luti, the daughter of a Sienese baker. If word of this marriage got out, it would have severely damaged his reputation; but Raphael was just the type of man to throw caution to the wind and follow his heart. Richard I and Berengaria WasÃ Richard the LionheartÃ gay? Some scholars believe it to be the reason he andÃ BerengariaÃ never had children. But then, their relationship was so strained Richard was ordered by the pope to patch things up. Robert Guiscard and Sichelgaita Sichelgaita (or Sikelgaita) was a Lombard princess who marriedÃ Guiscard, a Norman warlord, and proceeded to accompany him on many campaigns.Ã Anna ComnenaÃ wrote of Sichelgaita: When dressed in full armor, the woman was a fearsome sight. When Robert died during the siege of Cephalonia, Sichelgaita was right by his side. Robin Hood and Maid Marian The legends ofÃ Robin HoodÃ may have been based on the activities of real-life outlaws of the 12th century, though if so, scholars have no definitive proof of who precisely served as their inspiration. Marian stories were a later addition to the corpus. Tristan and Isolde The story ofÃ Tristan and IsoldeÃ was incorporated into Arthurian tales, but its origins are a Celtic legend that may be based on an actual Pictish king. Troilus and Criseyde The character of Troilus is a Trojan prince who falls in love with a Greek captive. In Geoffrey Chaucers poem she is Criseyde (in William Shakespeares play she is Cressida), and though she declares her love for Troilus, when she is ransomed by her people she goes to live with a big Greek hero. Uther and Igraine Arthurs fatherÃ UtherÃ was king, and he coveted the wife of the Duke of Cornwall, Igraine. So Merlin cast a spell on Uther to make him look like Cornwall, and while the real duke was out fighting, he slipped in to have his way with the virtuous lady. The result? Cornwall died in battle, and Arthur was born nine months later. William of Normandy and Matilda Before he seriously took aim at the crown of England,Ã William the ConquerorÃ set his sights on Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V of Flanders. Though he was distantly related to her and the pope condemned the marriage as incestuous, the pair went through with the wedding. Was it all for love of the lady? Perhaps, but his alliance with Baldwin was critical in cementing his position as Duke of Normandy. Still, he and Matilda had ten children, and to patch things up with the pope, they built two monasteries at Caen.
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Understanding Stockholm Syndrome Stockholm syndrome develops when people are placed in a situation where they feel intense fear of physical harm and believe all control is in the hands of their tormentor. The psychological response follows after a period of time and is a survival strategy for the victims. It includes sympathy and support for their captors plight and may even manifest in negative feelings toward officers who are trying to help the victims. Situations in which the victims have displayed this kind of response have included hostage situations, long-term kidnappings, members of cults, prisoners of concentration camps, and more. Key Takeaways: Stockholm Syndrome People exhibiting Stockholm syndrome become protective of their captors, even to the point of foiling the police efforts at their rescue.The syndrome is not a named disease in any manual but rather a description of peoples behaviors whove been traumatized over a period of time.While hostages and kidnapping victims can exhibit these behaviors, so can people in abusive relationships or members of cults. Origin of the Name The name Stockholm syndrome was derived from a 1973 bank robbery (Kreditbanken) in Stockholm, Sweden, where four hostages were held for six days. Throughout their imprisonment and while in harms way, each hostage seemed to defend the actions of the robbers. As an illustration of the hostages strange thoughts and behavior under psychological distress, History.com presents this example: [T]he hostage recounted to the New Yorker, How kind I thought he was for saying it was just my leg he would shoot.Ã¢â¬ The hostages even appeared to rebuke efforts by the government to rescue them. They pled for the captors not to be harmed during the rescue and orchestrated ways for that to happen. Immediately following the incident, the victims couldnt explain to psychologists their sympathetic feelings and lack of anger and hatred toward their captors. Months after their ordeal had ended, the hostages continued to exhibit loyalty to the robbers to the point of refusing to testify against them as well as helping the criminals raise funds for legal representation. They even visited them in prison. A Common Survival Mechanism The response of the hostages intrigued behaviorists and journalists, who, following the incident, conducted research to see if the Kreditbanken incident was unique or if other hostages in similar circumstances experienced the same sympathetic, supportive bonding with their captors. The researchers determined that such behavior was common among people whod gone through similar situations. A psychologist whod been involved with the Stockholm hostage situation coined the term Stockholm Syndrome, and another defined it for the FBI and Scotland Yard to enable officers to be able to understand that possible aspect of a hostage situation. The study of the condition helped inform their negotiations in future incidents of the same type. What Causes Stockholm Syndrome? Individuals can succumb to Stockholm syndrome under the following circumstances: The belief that ones captor can and will kill him or her. The feelings of relief by the victim for not being killed then turn to gratitude.Isolation from anyone but the captorsThe belief that escape is impossibleThe inflation of the captors acts of kindness into genuine care for each others welfareThe passage of at least a few days in captivity Victims of Stockholm syndrome generally suffer from severe isolation and emotional and physical abuse also demonstrated in characteristics of battered spouses, incest victims, abused children, prisoners of war, cult victims, procured prostitutes, slaves, and kidnapping, hijacking, or hostage victims. Each of these circumstances can result in the victims responding in a compliant and supportive way as a tactic for survival. It is similar to the reaction from brainwashing. Victims show some of the same symptoms as those who have post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD), such as insomnia, nightmares, difficulty concentrating, distrust of others, irritability, confusion, a sensitive startle reflex, and a loss of pleasure in once-favorite activities. Famous Cases In the year following the Stockholm bank incident, the syndrome was widely understood by the masses because of the case of Patty Hearst. Here is her story and other more recent examples: Patty Hearst Patty Hearst, at age 19, was kidnapped by the Symbionese Liberation Army (SLA). Two months after her kidnapping, she was seen in photographs participating in an SLA bank robbery in San Francisco. Later a tape recording was released with Hearst (SLA pseudonym Tania) voicing her support and commitment to the SLA cause. After the SLA group, including Hearst, was arrested, she denounced the radical group. During her trial her defense lawyer attributed her behavior while with the SLA to a subconscious effort to survive, comparing her reaction to captivity to other victims of Stockholm syndrome. According to testimony, Hearst had been bound, blindfolded, and kept in a small, dark closet, where she was physically and sexually abused for weeks before the bank robbery. Jaycee Lee Dugard On June 10, 1991, witnesses said they saw a man and a woman abduct 11-year-old Jaycee Lee Dugard by a school bus stop near her home in South Lake Tahoe, California. Her disappearance remained unsolved until August 27, 2009, when she walked into a California police station and introduced herself. For 18 years she was held captive in a tent behind the home of her captors, Phillip and Nancy Garrido. There Dugard gave birth to two children, who were ages 11 and 15 at the time of her reappearance. Although the opportunity to escape was present at different times throughout her captivity, Jaycee Dugard bonded with the captors as a form of survival. Natascha Kampusch In August 2006, Natascha Kampusch from Vienna was 18 years old when she managed to escape from her kidnapper, Wolfgang Priklopil, who had kept her locked in a small cell for more than eight years. She remained in the windowless cell, which was 54 square feet, for the first six months of her captivity. In time, she was permitted in the main house, where she would cook and clean for Priklopil. After several years of being held captive, she was occasionally allowed out into the garden. At one point she was introduced to Priklopils business partner, who described her as relaxed and happy. Priklopil controlled Kampusch by starving her to make her physically weak, severely beating her, and threating to kill her and the neighbors if she tried to escape. After Kampusch escaped, Priklopi committed suicide by jumping in front of an oncoming train. When Kampusch learned that Priklopil was dead, she cried inconsolably and lit a candle for him at the morgue. In a documentary based on her book, 3096 TageÃ (3,096 Days), Kampusch voiced sympathy for Priklopil. She said,Ã I feel more and more sorry for him- hes a poor soul. Newspapers reported that some psychologists suggested Kampusch may have been suffering from Stockholm syndrome, but she does not agree. In her book, she said the suggestion was disrespectful of her and did not properly describe the complex relationship that she had with Priklopil. Elizabeth Smart More recently, some believe Elizabeth Smart fell victim to Stockholm syndrome after her nine months of captivity and abuse by her captives,Ã Brian David Mitchell and Wanda Barzee. She denies that she had sympathetic feelings toward her captors or captivity and explained that she was just trying to survive. Her kidnapping is portrayed in the 2011 Lifetime movie, I Am Elizabeth Smart, and she published her memoir, My Story, in 2013. She is now an advocate for child safety and has a foundation to provide resources for those whove suffered traumatic events. Lima Syndrome: The Flip Side When captors develop feelings of sympathy for their hostages, which is rarer, its called Lima syndrome. The name comes from a 1996 Peru incident during which guerrilla fighters took over a birthday party for Japanese Emperor Akihito, given at the home of the Japanese ambassador. In a few hours, most of the people had been freed, even some of the most valuable to the group. Sources Alexander, David A.,Ã andÃ Klein, Susan. Ã¢â¬Å"Kidnapping and Hostage-Taking: A Review of Effects, Coping and Resilience.Ã¢â¬ Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 102, no. 1, 2009, 16Ã¢â¬â21.Burton, Neel, M.D. What Underlies Stockholm Syndrome? Psychology Today. 24 March 2012. Updated: 5 Sept. 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/hide-and-seek/201203/what-underlies-stockholm-syndrome.Conradt, Stacy. The Bank Robbery Behind Stockholm Syndrome. Mental Floss. 28 August 2013. http://mentalfloss.com/article/52448/story-behind-stockholm-syndrome.Elizabeth Smart Biography. Biography.com. AE Television Networks. 4 April 2014. Updated 14 Sept. 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/elizabeth-smart-17176406.Inside Jaycee Dugards Terror Tent. CBS News. https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/inside-jaycee-dugards-terror-tent/5/.Klein, Christopher. The Birth of Stockholm Syndrome, 40 Years Ago. History.com. AE Television Networks. 23 Aug. 2013. https://www.history.com/news /stockholm-syndrome. Stump, Scott. Elizabeth Smart on the one question that wont go away: Why didnt you run? Today.com. 14 Nov. 2017. https://www.today.com/news/elizabeth-smart-one-question-won-t-go-away-why-didn-t118795.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Critically assess the Role of Trade in Development - Essay Example In the context of low developed countries, trade becomes crucial to i) reduce economic vulnerability and protect the environment and ii) to mobilize financial resources (UNCTAD, 2010). The role of trade in the economic development and national development strategies are countless. Broadly the decisive role played by trade in economic development is discussed under five major heads in this paper. The goods and services which are produced locally have access to a larger market and the demand expansion effect of trade make the economy capable of overcoming the constraints of its local and domestic market size. This case becomes more relevant in the case of small and medium sized economies who have limited domestic purchasing power. The increasing returns to scale as a result of access to international markets can further reinforce the benefit of operating at a higher output level. The manufactured goods propose better prospects for export earnings by allowing for a more rapid productivity growth and production expansion and also offer the promise of greater price stability as volumes expand, thereby avoiding the declining terms of trade which hinders the long run economic performance of many developing countries (UNCTAD 2002) Trade leads to acquisition of newly affordable goods that are necessary for technological dynamisms, poverty reduction and increasing economic development. Those goods would not available unless export or import occur properly and even if they are available, those may not be for the scarce domestic resources. The import-supply role of the imports like food, fuel, capital equipments, spare parts, intermediate inputs and machinery for long run investment are very critical in the context of low developed and developing countries where the agriculture sector is more predominant and the productive capacities of manufacturing industries are weak. If the foreign earnings from exports are appropriately
Friday, October 18, 2019
Combinational and sequential logics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words
Combinational and sequential logics - Assignment Example The two binary digit full adders are found as the standard IC packages as 74LS283 and 74LS83 which add up and generate a CARRY and SUM output. Image for the two binary digits full adder Another very useful and a common combinational logic is that of one bit magnitude comparator. The comparator is comprised of the NOT, NOR, and AND logic gates. The logic gates compare the signals found in the input terminal and produce the output that depend on the input condition (Ross & Sheldon 75). For instance, despite adding and subtracting numbers, they are able to compare them and find if the value of A is smaller than, equal to, or greater than input B. The one bit magnitude comparator achieves this by using the above logic gates that use the mechanism of Boolean algebra. The one bit magnitude comparator comprises of the three terminals that act as the terminals. One is greater than A>B, equalityA=B, and less than A
Economic Impacts of Tourism - Essay Example The economic impacts in the tourism sector immediately ask for grants, loans and stipends to be given to the people who have an indirect or for that matter direct role in the building up of structures, buildings, and pathways Ã¢â¬â all of which come under the tourist attraction cycle. (Jafari, 2000) The economy gets a facelift and there are changes in the lines of commerce and industry since the country realizes its true potential elsewhere. Consequently, people come to terms with the advancements and technological changes that start to happen within such lands and thus hail the efforts undertaken by the related ministries. It builds a bridge between the different publics which are playing an active role in this impacting cause Ã¢â¬â tourism development and management within a country. The publics comprise of the locals who would be more than willing to offer hotel/motel services, transport facilities and the like; as well as the foreigners which come towards this region in ord er to enjoy and learn a bit more about the scenery. Tourism is a vast field that has immense economic advantages. The need is to understand the right kinds of interactivity regimes and reject the negative image and propaganda, however, it is wise and in the best interest of building public relations that the government and the authorities always speak unanimously the truth that exists. Shortcomings related to the region and the problems that could happen for the tourists must be educated in advance so that the tourists are given a choice as per their respective undertakings and journeys. The effects of tourism on the region are apparent but what it brings to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign reserves is important. It opens up the path that leads towards success since the government finds out the cash cow Ã¢â¬â the tourism industry.
Windows 7 Workgroup Consultation for Sally Chu - Assignment Example Keywords: UAC, user access controls, administrative users, users, Windows 7, workgroup, network Windows 7 Workgroup Consultation for Sally Chu In order for Sally to grant all six of her administrative staff members the same computer-access privileges, to allow them to run applications and use network printers, but not be able to make any accidental changes that can adversely affect their computers, the most effective and efficient way to create user accounts for these employees would be as follows. The first step would be to setup the profile for SallyÃ¢â¬â¢s administrators. In order to ensure that the administrators cannot make any changes that would adversely affect the computers themselves, the best bet is to setup the administrators on a standard user profile, instead of an administrator profile, as the administrator profile would have complete access to make any and all changes, while the standard use can use most software and change system settings that do not affect other us ers or the security of the computer itself. Once the standard user is setup, the next step is to setup the parental controls for that standard user, allowing for the use of games to be filtered out, and blocking any specific programs that she does not want the administrators to have access to, by setting the profile to only be able to use the programs from an allowed list, as specified by herself. Once the account is setup, and the parental controls are put in place, the settings in UAC, or User Account Controls, would need to be set, providing notification when programs try to make changes to the computer. This must be done for each profile that needs to be created, for a total of six (Microsoft, 2013). As Sally would like to provide a high level of authentication for her networkÃ¢â¬â¢s users, she would like a dual authentication process. Two of the different methods that she could use in conjunction with requiring a password for network access are the option to use EAP (Extensib le Authentication Protocol), and setting to allow certain protocols. Selecting Ã¢â¬Å"Use Extensible Authentication ProtocolÃ¢â¬ allows the selection of using one of three protocols for authenticating the VPN connection: Protected EAP (PEAP), EAP-MSCHAPv2, or Smart Card or Other Certificate; all three options will ensure the security and data integrity of the EAP conversation through the use of encryption. The default setting is EAP-MSCHAPv2, which is also known as Secure Password. By selecting the properties for EAP-MSCHAPv2, the ability to configure the connection to use the Windows login credentials in order to authenticate the connection. Selecting Ã¢â¬Å"Allow These ProtocolsÃ¢â¬ instead as the other alternative for providing the second level of security to the network connection will allow for the choice between three different connection types, all of which can be set to configure the Windows login credentials to be used; the three different authentication protocols tha t can be used by the connection are PAP, CHAP, or MS-CHAPv2. Ã¢â¬Å"The choice of these three types of authentication methods will only apply to PPTP, L2TP/IPsec, or SSTP tunnels; IKEv2 tunnels can only use EAP-MSCHAPv2 or certificates as their authentication methodsÃ¢â¬ (Sourcedaddy.com, 2008). While there is an advantage into having the userÃ¢â¬â¢s use their Windows login credentials, namely that they will not have to remember a third set of login credentials, the disadvantage is that if an unauthorized user obtains that information, that will give them that much more access to the network itself. The user access controls set for the profiles themselves will ensure that the web based applications will run in protected mode, and by allowing the particular programs on the intranet in the